Intumescent flame retardant basics
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Intumescent flame retardant basics

The flame retardant system of the P-N-based intumescent flame retardant generally comprises three parts, namely a carbon source (often a polyhydroxy compound such as pentaerythritol), an acid source (such as ammonium polyphosphate, ie APP) and a blowing agent (such as melamine). Its flame retardant mechanism (the process of carbon layer formation):
     (1) The acid source releases a mineral acid at a lower temperature. (about 150 ° C, the specific temperature depends on the nature of the acid source and other components)
      (2) An esterification reaction occurs at a slightly higher temperature than the acid is released, and the amine in the system can be used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction.
      (3) The system melts before esterification and during esterification.
      (4) The water vapor generated by the reaction and the incombustible gas generated by the gas source foam the molten system, and at the same time, the polyol phosphate is dehydrated and carbonized to form an inorganic substance and a carbon residue, and the system is further expanded and foamed.
      (5) The system gels and solidifies to form a porous foamed carbon layer.

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